Ultra-precision machining technology was proposed in the 1960s. It is an important way to improve the performance, quality, working life and reliability of electromechanical products, as well as the ability to save energy. Ultra-precision machining refers to machining error less than 0.1m and surface roughness. Processing technology smaller than Ra0.025Ixm, also known as sub-micron processing, ultra-precision processing technology level is one of the important signs of a national manufacturing industry level.
In addition to fluctuations in hydraulic and pneumatic sources, the working environment has a great influence on the processing quality. Therefore, the working environment is a necessary condition for ensuring the processing quality. The working environment mainly has requirements for temperature, purification and anti-vibration. The influence of environmental temperature change on the accuracy of the machine tool is particularly significant. The machining error caused by the thermal factor including the ambient temperature change accounts for (40 70)% of the total machining error. The mixing of dust will cause the surface of the workpiece to be scratched and affect the surface quality. If vibration occurs during processing, streaks or striated marks appear on the machined surface, which causes a significant drop in surface finish.
With the increasingly high precision requirements of ultra-precision machining, the requirements for the processing environment are becoming more and more strict. Only from the fluctuations of supply pressure, environmental temperature changes, external and self-vibration, which affect the precision of ultra-precision machining, the influence is analyzed. The factors of ultra-precision machining accuracy are various. To improve the precision of ultra-precision machining, it is necessary to understand not only the factors affecting it, but also the solutions.